Judo is one of the very few sports, which is fully dynamic in nature. In judo, a judoka (judo player) needs to understand his/her strengths and weaknesses to select suitable basic techniques and to use them by analyzing their opponent's style, strengths etc.
While keeping the basic principles and function of techniques intact, they may have to make some changes in their movements, method of gripping etc. This, in fact leads to a new form of application of a particular technique.
To certain extent, regional diversities, cultural and conventional differences also played a major role in the evolution of the sport of Judo. Methods and style of application of a technique were adopted by different countries, with necessary changes to fit into their culture and conventions and best utilization of their physical qualities. Needless to say, the constant evolution makes judo most dynamic and exciting.
Despite the fact of evolution, the basic technique of judo remains the same, and can be categorized into the following three broad categories:
- Nage Waza - Throwing Techniques
- Katame Waza - Grappling Techniques
- Atemi Waze - Striking Techniques
The above categories can be further classified, based on its various aspects/actions.
Nage waza consists of Tachi Waza (standing techniques) and Sutemi Waza (sacrifice techniques).
Considering the importance of the action of hands/hips/legs, Tachi Waza is again classified into, either Te Waza (hand techniques), Koshi Waza (hip techniques) or Ashi Waza (foot or leg techniques). This further classification is made on the basis of which part of the body plays the central role in executing the technique.
Sutemi Waza is generally known as Ma Sutemi Waza (supine sacrifice techniques), which involves taking a back-on-the-mat position. Sutemi Waza is also called Yoko Sutemi Waza (side sacrifIce techniques) if it involves taking a side-on-the-mat position.